[6] The festival grounds also feature a wide range of cultural spectacles over the month of celebrations. Monier Monier Williams (Updated 2006), Sanskrit English Dictionary with Etymology. At night the river banks and camps illuminated with oil lamps, fireworks burst over the river, and innumerable floating lamps set by the pilgrims drifted downstream of the river. [28][33] Thus, Kumbh Mela means an "assembly, meet, union" around "water or nectar of immortality". Koná se čtyřikrát za dvanáct let a místo jejího konání se střídá ve čtyřech městech: v Iláhábádu, Haridváru, Udždžainu a Násiku. [53] The late 16th-century Tabaqat-i-Akbari also records of an annual bathing festival at Prayag sangam where "various classes of Hindus came from all sides of the country to bathe, in such numbers, that the jungles and plains [around it] were unable to hold them". The 10-minute audio clip warned of a 2017 Las Vegas style attacks to be carried out by lone wolf attackers. According to Amna Khalid, the Kumbh Melas emerged as one of the social and political mobilisation venues and the colonial government became keen in monitoring these developments after the Indian rebellion of 1857. [66][103] The largest contingent is the Juna akhara, traced to Adi Shankara, representing a diverse mix from the four of the largest Hindu monasteries in India with their headquarters at Sringeri, Dvarka, Jyotirmatha and Govardhana. According to Macclean, the colonial records of this period on the Prayag Mela present a biased materialistic view given they were written by colonialists and missionaries. [90] In 2013, 120 million pilgrims attended the Kumbh Mela at Prayagraj. [86] In 2001, IKONOS satellite images confirmed a very large human gathering,[87][88] with officials estimating 70 million people over the festival,[88] including more than 40 million on the busiest single day according to BBC News. [45][46][47], Kama MacLean – an Indologist who has published articles on the Kumbh Mela predominantly based on the colonial archives and English-language media,[48] states based on emails from other scholars and a more recent interpretation of the 7th-century Xuanzang memoir, the Prayag event happened every 5 years (and not 12 years), featured a Buddha statue, involved alms giving and it might have been a Buddhist festival. [39][50] These Sanskrit guide books of the medieval era India were updated over its editions, likely by priests and guides who had a mutual stake in the economic returns from the visiting pilgrims. So they built a high-tech surveillance ministate", "Mauni Amavasya: Five crore pilgrims take holy dip at Kumbh till 5 pm", "Review of Pilgrimage and Power: The Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, 1765–1954", "Time Trends of Cholera in India : An Overview", "Five die in stampede at Hindu bathing festival", Kumbh Mela pictured from space – probably the largest human gathering in history, "India's Hindu Kumbh Mela festival begins in Allahabad", Kumbh Mela: How UP will manage one of the world's biggest religious festival, "Official Website of Kumbh Mela 2013 Allahabad Uttar Pradesh India", "CM reviews Kumbh Mela 2021 preparations", "Managing the Earth's Biggest Mass Gathering Event and WASH Conditions: Maha Kumbh Mela (India)", 10.1371/currents.dis.e8b3053f40e774e7e3fdbe1bb50a130d, India: Staying Healthy at “The Biggest Gathering on Earth”, "Sadhus astride elephants, horses at Maha Kumbh", "Short Cut to Nirvana - A Documentary about the Kumbh Mela Spiritual Festival", "Kumbh Mela 2013 – living with mahatiagi", "Why twins no longer get separated at Kumbh Mela", "Uncertified film screening at Kolkata gallery miffs CBFC", "India's Kumbh Mela Is Used as an Incubator for Smart City Startup Ideas", "Massachusetts Institute of Technology joins the pilgrims at the Kumbh Mela in Nashik, India to test out technology for our over-crowded cities", "From Waze for crowds to Uber for street food – MIT innovations at Kumbh Mela", "ISIS Has Just Warned India Of Las Vegas Type Lone-Wolf Attacks During Kumbh Mela", "Kumbh Mela 2019: ISIS issues threats of chemical attack, NDRF conducts mock drill", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kumbh_Mela&oldid=998448825, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Religious pilgrimage, rituals, social practices and festive events. [20] Each festival attracts millions, with the largest gathering at the Prayag Kumbh Mela and the second largest at Haridwar. This event – called shahi snan or rajyogi snan – is marked by a celebratory processional march, with banners, flags, elephants, horses and musicians along with the naked or scantily clad monks,[note 5] some smeared with bhasma (ashes). The gap between Prayag and Haridwar festivals is about 6 years, and both feature a Maha (major) and Ardha (half) Kumbh melas. [105], The motivations for the bathing ritual are several. [6], Kumbh Mela has received extensive media coverage, with several documentaries and films based on it. O Khumba Mela ou Kumbh Mela (de khumb, "pote" e mela, "festival") é o principal festival do hinduísmo, que ocorre quatro vezes a cada doze anos na Índia, rodando por quatro cidades: Prayagraj, Ujjain, Nashik e Haridwar. [3], Património Cultural Imaterial da Humanidade, «http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/15/AR2007011500041.html», «Milhões de indianos dão hoje início ao maior festival religioso do mundo, o Kumbh Mela», O Ganges Sagrado - página sobre o hinduísmo da Secretaria da Educação do governo do Paraná, https://pt.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Khumba_Mela&oldid=56289473, Património Cultural Imaterial da Humanidade na Índia, !Artigos que carecem de notas de rodapé desde setembro de 2019, !Artigos que carecem de notas de rodapé sem indicação de tema, !Páginas que usam sintaxe de imagem obsoleta, Atribuição-CompartilhaIgual 3.0 Não Adaptada (CC BY-SA 3.0) da Creative Commons. Millions of Hindus are attending the Kumbh Mela festival in India - the biggest gathering of people in the world. [58], Until the East India Company rule, the Kumbh Melas (Magha Melas) were managed by these akharas. The festival management workers have only two and a half months to start and complete the construction of all temporarily infrastructure necessary for the pilgrims, making the task even more challenging. [6], Maha Kumbh at Prayagrajis the largest in the world, the attendance and scale of preparation of which keeps rising with each successive celebration. Sadhguru explains the science and significance of one of the world’s largest spiritual gathering. Most pilgrims stay for a day or two, but some stay the entire month of Magh during the festival and live an austere life during the stay. [7] However, there is no historic literary evidence that he actually did start the Kumbh melas. Kumbh Mela or Kumbha Mela (/ ˌ k ʊ m b ˈ m eɪ l ə /) is a major pilgrimage and festival in Hinduism. Sie erzählt von einem Kampf der Götter um den Trank der Unsterblichkeit. Once the British had regained control of the region, the Prayagwals were persecuted by the colonial officials, some convicted and hanged, while others for whom the government did not have proof enough to convict were persecuted. 12.04.2016 - gatering of th holy people. [68][69] The Prayagwal pandas initially went along, according to colonial records, but later resisted as the impact of the religious tax on the pilgrims became clear. [43], There are other references to Prayaga and river-side festivals in ancient Indian texts, including at the places where present-day Kumbh Melas are held, but the exact age of the Kumbh Mela is uncertain. It's attended by millions of people each day. [66][102][104], The bathing ritual by the pilgrims may be aided by a Prayagwal priest or maybe a simple dip that is private. Religion Hinduismus (GERMANY OUT) Maha Kumbh Mela (Fest) in Hardwar,Indien:Hinduistische Naga Sadhus auf dem Wegzum Ganges (zum Bad im heiligen Fluß)- 14.04.1998 (COL) (Photo by Khemka/ullstein bild via Getty Images) Traditionally, on amavasya – the most cherished day for bathing – the Hindu pilgrims welcome and wait for the thirteen sadhu akharas to bathe first. churning of the ocean) found in the Vedic texts. [74][75][76] The Timur accounts mention the mass bathing ritual along with shaving of head, the sacred river Ganges, charitable donations, the place was at the mountainous source of the river and that pilgrims believed a dip in the sacred river leads to their salvation. The right to be naga, or naked, is considered a sign of separation from the material world. Several Hindu rajas, Sikh rulers and Muslim Nawabs visited the fair. [53] Both these Mughal era texts use the term "Kumbh Mela" to describe only Haridwar's fair, mentioning a similar fair held in Prayag and Nashik. [39], The earliest mention of Prayag and the bathing pilgrimage is found in Rigveda Pariśiṣṭa (supplement to the Rigveda). Esta página foi editada pela última vez às 09h51min de 20 de setembro de 2019. [20] Additionally, the priests sought the British administration to recognise the festival and protect their religious rights. [1][2] The festival is marked by a ritual dip in the waters, but it is also a celebration of community commerce with numerous fairs, education, religious discourses by saints, mass feedings of monks or the poor, and entertainment spectacle. [100], In 2013, the Indian government authorities, in co-operation with seva volunteers, monks and Indian companies, set up 11 sectors with 55 camp clusters, providing round-the-clock first aid, ambulance, pharmacy, sector cleaning, sanitation, food and water distribution (setting up 550 kilometres of pipelines operated by 42 pumps), cooking fuel, and other services. [20] Four of these morphed under the Kumbh Mela brand during the East India Company rule (British colonial era) when it sought to control the war-prone monks and the lucrative tax and trade revenues at these Hindu pilgrimage festivals. The Kumbh Mela in India is as mesmerizing as it is spiritual. For the 2019 Ardh Kumbh at Prayagraj, the preparations include a ₹42,000 million (US$590 million or €540 million) temporary city over 2,500 hectares with 122,000 temporary toilets and range of accommodation from simple dormitory tents to 5-star tents, 800 special trains by the Indian Railway, artificially intelligent video surveillance and analytics by IBM, disease surveillance, river transport management by Inland Waterways Authority of India, and an app to help the visitors. Of these, four sites are broadly recognised as the Kumbh Melas: Prayagraj, Haridwar, Trimbak-Nashik and Ujjain. Approximately once a century, the Kumbh mela returns after 11 years. The most significant is the belief that the tirtha (pilgrimage) to the Kumbh Mela sites and then bathing in these holy rivers has a salvific value, moksha – a means to liberation from the cycle of rebirths (samsara). [28] The astrological etymology dates to late 1st-millennium CE, likely influenced by Greek zodiac ideas. [107] Its epics such as the Mahabharata describe Yudhisthira in a state full of sorrow and despair after participating in the violence of the great war that killed many. Along with priests, soldiers, and religious mendicants, the fair had horse traders from Bukhara, Kabul, Turkistan as well as Arabs and Persians. [53][68] The British officials, states Dubey, raised the tax to amount greater than average monthly income and the attendance fell drastically. [41] The Mahabharata mentions a bathing pilgrimage at Prayag as a means of prāyaścitta (atonement, penance) for past mistakes and guilt. [75], Several stampedes have occurred at the Kumbh Melas. The story varies and is inconsistent, with some stating Vishnu as Mohini avatar, others stating Dhanavantari or Garuda or Indra spilling the pot. Of those who do belong to a group, the thirteen active akharas have been,[66], The ten Shaiva and Vaishnava akharas are also known as the Dasanamis, and they believe that Adi Shankara founded them and one of their traditional duties is dharma-raksha (protection of faith). [105] More elaborate ceremonies include a yajna (homa) led by a priest. Hindu festival also called Kumbha Mela in Hinduism, religious festival that is celebrated four times every 12 years, the site of the observance rotating between four pilgrimage places on four sacred rivers: at Hardwar on the Ganges… en.academic.ru EN ... Kumbh Mela Hindu festival. [52] Manuscripts related to Hindu ascetics and warrior-monks – akharas fighting the Islamic Sultanates and Mughal Empire era – mention bathing pilgrimage and a large periodic assembly of Hindus at religious festivals associated with bathing, gift-giving, commerce and organisation. [20][59] These akharas have roots in the Hindu Naga (naked) monks tradition, who went to war without clothes. The later Mughal Empire era texts that contain the term "Kumbha Mela" in Haridwar's context include Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh (1695–1699 CE),[53] and Chahar Gulshan (1759 CE). The Mahanirbani and Niranjani are the other large contingents, and each akhara has their own lineage of saints and teachers. Large crowds gather in reverence and cheer for these procession of monks. On 28 April 2010, BBC reported an audio and a video report on Kumbh Mela, titled "Kumbh Mela 'greatest show on earth. It is celebrated in a cycle of approximately 12 years at four river-bank pilgrimage sites: the Allahabad (Prayag) (Ganges-Yamuna Sarasvati rivers confluence), Haridwar … [58] These soldier-monk traditions have been a well-established feature of the Indian society, and they are prominent feature of the Kumbh melas. In 1938, Lord Auckland abolished the pilgrim tax and vast numbers returned to the pilgrimage thereafter. It is held every third year at one of the four places by rotation: Haridwar, Allahabad (Prayag), Nasik and Ujjain. [106] The pilgrimage is also recommended in Hindu texts to those who have made mistakes or sinned, repent their errors and as a means of prāyaścitta (atonement, penance) for these mistakes. Sanskrit, lit. The first two of these loca tions are in Uttar Pradesh, Ujjaini is in… Two major groups that participate in the Kumbh Mela include the Sadhus (Hindu holy men) and pilgrims. [26][27], The Kumbha in Kumbha Mela literally means "pitcher, jar, pot" in Sanskrit. [10], Kumbh Mela at Prayagrajis celebrated approximately 3 years after Kumbh at Haridwar and 3 years before Kumbh at Nashik and Ujjain (both of which are celebrated in the same year or one year apart). Left: Anna Dāna event at Prayag Kumbh, feeding monks and poor; Right: A dance performance. [28] It is found in the Vedic texts, in this sense, often in the context of holding water or in mythical legends about the nectar of immortality. [105] After these river-side rituals, the pilgrim then takes a dip in the water, stands up, prays for a short while, then exits the river waters. One of the longest sections about Prayag rivers and its significance to Hindu pilgrimage is found in chapters 103–112 of the Matsya Purana. [81] "Prayagwals targeted and destroyed the mission press and churches in Allahabad". [93], For the 2019 PrayagrajKumbh Mela, the Uttar Pradesh chief minister Yogi Adityanath announced that the Ardh Kumbh Mela (organised every 6 years) will simply be known as "Kumbh Mela", and the Kumbh Mela (organised every 12 years) will be known as "Maha Kumbh Mela" ("Great Kumbh Mela"). According to Baranwal et al., their 13-day field study of the 2013 Kumbh mela found that "the Mela committee and all other agencies involved in Mela management successfully supervised the event and made it convenient, efficient and safe,"[100] an assessment shared by the US-based Center for Disease Control for the Nasik Kumbh mela. [2], The weeks over which the festival is observed cycles at each site approximately once every 12 years[note 1] based on the Hindu luni-solar calendar and the relative astrological positions of Jupiter, sun and moon. It dates from the early centuries CE, given it has been mentioned in several early Puranas. The 4 places of ‘Kumbh Mela’ are symbols of 4 directions. Die Kumbh Mela in Ujjain wird Simhastha genannt. Durante a batalha pela posse da "kumbh", quatro gotas de "amrit" caíram na terra, em Prayagraj, Haridwar, Nasik e Ujjain, as quatro cidades onde o festival da Kumbh Mela tem lugar. [1] It is celebrated in a cycle of approximately 12 years at four river-bank pilgrimage sites: the Allahabad (Prayag) (Ganges-Yamuna Sarasvati rivers confluence), Haridwar (Ganges), Nashik (Godavari), and Ujjain (Shipra). However, states Lochtefeld, these historical texts "clearly reveal large, well-established bathing festivals" that were either annual or based on the twelve-year cycle of planet Jupiter. [81], The Kumbh Mela continued to play an important role in the independence movement through 1947, as a place where the native people and politicians periodically gathered in large numbers. They attend spiritual discourses, fast and pray over the month, and these Kumbh pilgrims are called kalpavasis. [49] In contrast, Ariel Glucklich – a scholar of Hinduism and Anthropology of Religion, the Xuanzang memoir includes, somewhat derisively, the reputation of Prayag as a place where people (Hindus) once committed superstitious devotional suicide to liberate their souls, and how a Brahmin of an earlier era successfully put an end to this practice. In 1964, the Vishva Hindu Parishad was founded at the Haridwar Kumbh Mela. Segundo a cosmologia hindu, o rio Ganges tem origem nos céus. Segundo uma fábula, os deuses e os demônios lutavam pela "kumbh" (jarra, pote), onde se encontrava o "amrit" (néctar), criado pelo "sagar manthan" (o escumar dos oceanos). Town Survey Report: Haryana, Thanesar, District Kurukshetra, Fairs and Festivals of India: Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, "Over 3 crore take holy dip in Sangam on Mauni Amavasya", "Over three crore devotees take the dip at Sangam", "Eyes in the sky. [13][14] Other places where the Magha-Mela or Makar-Mela bathing pilgrimage and fairs have been called Kumbh Mela include Kurukshetra,[15][16] Sonipat,[17] and Panauti (Nepal). For example, the colonial era Imperial Gazetteer of India reported that between 2 and 2.5 million pilgrims attended the Kumbh mela in 1796 and 1808, then added these numbers may be exaggerations. Kumbh Mela is the biggest Hinduism fair and a spiritual congregation held every 12 years in four Holy cities Prayag (Allahabad), Haridwar, Ujjain and Tryambakeshwar-Nashik in India. The darshan is important to the experience of the Kumbh Mela and because of this worshipers must be careful so as to not displease religious deities. Man nennt sie "Sadhus", die "Heiligen". Seeing of the Sadhus is carefully managed and worshipers often leave tokens at their feet. what is Kumbha mela ? [119] This received significant media coverage in Wall Street Journal,[120] BBC[121] and Guardian. Kumbh Mela, religious festival and pilgrimage rotating between four sacred rivers. The Kumbh Mela has been successfully adapted to Allahabad and has arguably become the greatest mela in modern India, even eclipsing its Hardwar namesake. [59][62][63] At the 1760 Kumbh Mela in Haridwar, a clash broke out between Shaivite Gosains and Vaishnavite Bairagis (ascetics), resulting in hundreds of deaths. These Purana-genre Hindu texts describe it as a place "bustling with pilgrims, priests, vendors, beggars, guides" and local citizens busy along the confluence of the rivers (sangam). The camping (santhas/akharas), food, water, sanitation, emergency health care, fire services, policing, disaster management preparations, the movement of people require significant prior planning. Since Jupiter's orbit completes in 11.86 years, a calendar year adjustment appears in approximately 8 cycles. Kumbh Mela has been theme for many documentaries, including Kings with Straw Mats (1998) directed by Ira Cohen, Kumbh Mela: The Greatest Show on Earth (2001) directed by Graham Day,[111] Short Cut to Nirvana: Kumbh Mela (2004) directed by Nick Day and produced by "Maurizio Benazzo",[112] Kumbh Mela: Songs of the River (2004) by Nadeem Uddin,[113] Invocation, Kumbh Mela (2008), Kumbh Mela 2013: Living with Mahatiagi (2013) by the Ukrainian Religious Studies Project Ahamot,[114] and Kumbh Mela: Walking with the Nagas (2011), Amrit: Nectar of Immortality (2012) directed by Jonas Scheu and Philipp Eyer. Constance Jones and James D. Ryan (2006), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Infobase, p. 280, UNESCO's Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, artificially intelligent video surveillance, Seeing, Being Seen, and Not Being Seen: Pilgrimage, Tourism, and Layers of Looking at the Kumbh Mela. The Maha Kumbh, which occurs every 12 Purna Kumbh Melas i.e. this year (2010) the kumbha will be in Haridwar. Darshan focuses on the visual exchange, where there is interaction with a religious deity and the worshiper is able to visually "'drink' divine power." Weitere Ideen zu buddhismus, spirituell, joga. Dieser besondere Krug enthielt den Trank der Unsterblichkeit. ][9] of an annual Magha Mela in Hinduism – with periodic larger gatherings after 6 or 12 years – where pilgrims gathered in massive numbers and where one of the rituals included a sacred dip in a river or holy tank. Historically the Kumbh Melas were also major commercial events, initiation of new recruits to the akharas, prayers and community singing, spiritual discussions, education and a spectacle. The Kumbh Mela authorities said that the largest one-day attendance at the Kumbh Mela was 30 million on 10 February 2013,[24][25] and 50 million on 4 February 2019. [22] It has been inscribed on the UNESCO's Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. [25] Nasik has registered maximum visitors to 75 million. Thousands of pilgrims in every form of transport as well as on foot marched to the pilgrimage site, dressed in colorful costumes, some without clothes, occasionally shouting "Mahadeo Bol" and "Bol, Bol" together. By tradition, families and companies sponsor these anna dana (food charity) events, particularly for the monks and the poor pilgrims. It is hosted in four cities of India these are Haridwar, Prayag or Allahabad, Ujjain and Nashik. [5] In Tirthayatra Parva, before the great war, the epic states "the one who observes firm [ethical] vows, having bathed at Prayaga during Magha, O best of the Bharatas, becomes spotless and reaches heaven. [39], – Kama Maclean (2008)Pilgrimage and Power: The Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, 1765-1954[51], According to James Lochtefeld – a scholar of Indian religions, the phrase Kumbh Mela and historical data about it is missing in early Indian texts. [85], On 14 April 1998, 10 million pilgrims attended the Kumb Mela at Haridwar on the busiest single day, according to the Himalayan Academy editors. [58] The Kumbh Melas have been one of their recruitment and initiation venues, as well as the place to trade. [44], Other early accounts of the significance of Prayag to Hinduism is found in the various versions of the Prayaga Mahatmya, dated to the late 1st-millennium CE. "[citation needed], Young siblings getting separated at the Kumbh Mela were once a recurring theme in Hindi movies. The phrases such as "Maha Kumbh" and "Ardh Kumbh" in the context of the ancient religious pilgrimage festivals with a different name at Prayag, Nasik and Ujjain are evidently of a more modern era. According to Maclean, the Prayagwal Brahmin priests of Prayag coopted the Kumbh legend and brand to the annual Prayag Magh Mela given the socio-political circumstances in the 19th-century. The dispute started over the bathing order, which then indicated status of the akharas. Kumbh Mela: the Greatest Festival on Earth The Kumbh Mela happens on a scale that is vast. www.simhasthujjain.in The Kumbh Mela is a mass Hindu pilgrimage of faith in which Hindus gather to bathe in a sacred river.